Scientific Management is the name used for a particular body of principles and techniques of management that have been propounded as relevant to industrial undertakings. The fundamental concept of Scientific Management is that there exists one best way ” to do every act which needs to be done in a workshop, and that it is the job of the management to find out that ” one best way ” and to make such preparations that will ensure that it is always done. Scientific management attempts to have the maximum from methods, men, materials, machines and money.
The main characteristics or features of scientific management are listed below:
Approach: Scientific management is a systematic, analytical and objective approach to management which makes sure that all activities are carried out a systematic and scientific manner.
Minimize Wastage: The focus of scientific management is to cut down the waste of time, materials, machine, etc. All of the avoidable components of production are removed and a genuine attempt is made to attain highest production at the minimum cost.
Discards Traditional Management: The scientific management approach completely discards the old ways of rule of thumb and hit or miss strategy. It demands the usage of new and modern methods.
Mental Revolution: Scientific management brings a complete change in the mental attitude of employees along with the management. The aim is superior production targets as opposed to just chasing higher profits.
Demands Rigorous Observance of Rules: Scientific management calls for very strict observance of rules, as the rules are created only after due investigation and there is hardly any possibility of error in them. Unless the guidelines are implemented stringently the scientific touch given to management may disappear which makes it just like the traditional management.
Emphasis: It concentrates on all factors of production, men, material and technology.
Increases the Productivity of Employees: The key purpose of scientific management is to boost the performance of employees. This is successfully achieved by performing a variety of studies like time study, motion study and fatigue study. As a result, scientific management helps in the enhancement of employees efficiency and the gain eventually goes to the organisation itself.
A good choice for Huge Companies: Considering that the scientific management technique is pricey to employ, it is beneficial only for large sized organisations.
Method: This approach tries to uncover the most practical way of doing a job with the lowest cost.
Importance to Specialization: Scientific management entails splitting work into small parts, each part being designated to the individual who is skilled to do it. This leads to better and more work being done in a lot less time. Therefore, we can say that scientific management gives due importance to specialization. Without any doubt, the force of specialization sweeps away all the dirt and wastage produced by traditional method of performing a job.
Techniques: The scientific management approach uses scientific techniques in work, recruitment, selection and training of workers.
Aim: Scientific management is the method of organizing, conducting, directing, and controlling human activities. Hence there has to be a specific aim before the managers, to ensure that the human activities are organized and directed for achieving those aims.