Traditional process of learning is either through observation and experiment. Nature or environment is considered uniform and when we observe certain phenomenon or events uniformly leading to the same result or results, we conclude a cause and effect relationship between the two. This is learning by observation or in other words by experience. Earlier thinkers on management followed this approach in developing theories of management. Learning principally is through empirical process and through analysis of the data collected through observation. Draw the principles of management by looking at and analyzing the jobs that all managers commonly do.
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Source: R. Kannan